Diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and hepatitis C virus infection: A contemporary review.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metformin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 14 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 15 endocrinologydiseases
glucose intolerance 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
pioglitazone 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 4808 antidiabetic agents or insulin. The definition of IR was based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) according to the formula: HOMA-IR = fasting glucose (mmol/L) × fasting insulin
Insulin 10130 volunteers; G1: Genotype 1; SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; IGT: Impaired
Insulin 10154 SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance [after
Insulin 16564 infection; G1: Genotype 1; SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; NS: Not significant.Do
Insulin 16588 SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; NS: Not significant.Do diabetes mellitus
Insulin 20714 infection; G1: Genotype 1; SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting
Insulin 20738 SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; SSGP:
Insulin 23443 infection; G1: Genotype 1; SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; FI: Fasting
Insulin 23467 SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; FI: Fasting insulin; IGT: Impaired glucose
Insulin 23598 Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; FI: Fasting insulin; IGT: Impaired glucose tolerance; ISI: Insulin sensitivity index; SI: Serum insulin; SSGP: Steady-state plasma glucose; NS: Not significant.Improvement
Insulin 26989 Hepatocellular carcinoma; SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; NS: Not significant.Five studies looked for
Insulin 27013 SVR: Sustained virological response; HOMA-IR: Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; NS: Not significant.Five studies looked for the presence of DM/IR
Insulin 28042 per se related to chronic hepatic diseases, were the rationale for speculation on this relationship. Insulin -resistance is an often undetected condition, commonly coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome,
Insulin 34676 suggest that increased insulin levels after hyperglycaemia leads to interferon signalling impairment. Insulin may inhibit the ability of interferon alfa to block HCV replication due to the activation of PI3K by
metformin 36088 retrospective cohort from Taiwan (19349 diabetic patients, 1.7% HCV positive) showed that patients taking metformin and thiazolidinediones had the lowest risk of HCC (HR 0.49 and 0.56, respectively) after adjusting for
metformin 36320 comorbidities[[50]]. Consistently, in a prospective cohort of 100 HCV patients with ongoing cirrhosis, metformin treatment was independently associated with a decrease of HCC occurrence and liver-related death or
pioglitazone 35649 after peginterferon alfa and ribavirin were given, regardless of whether or not patients had received pioglitazone , an antidiabetic drug[[48]]. Of note, most glycemic control indexes improved significantly in the pioglitazone
pioglitazone 35760 pioglitazone, an antidiabetic drug[[48]]. Of note, most glycemic control indexes improved significantly in the pioglitazone group except for HbA1c. Another study found higher SVR rates in G4 patients treated with pioglitazone[[49]].
pioglitazone 35862 pioglitazone group except for HbA1c. Another study found higher SVR rates in G4 patients treated with pioglitazone [[49]]. Pioglitazone may alter NK cell functions and thus impair clearance of infected hepatocytes[[48]].
pioglitazone 36589 of 85 patients with HCV-related HCC, HCC recurrence-free survival was increased in diabetics taking pioglitazone vs non-treated diabetics (44.2% vs 36.5%, respectively, P = 0.37)[[52]]. A significant decrease in HCC
pioglitazone 36736 36.5%, respectively, P = 0.37)[[52]]. A significant decrease in HCC recurrence was observed in the pioglitazone group for patients with a BMI > 24.We acknowledge some limitations of this study. Although we tried
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 765 collected the literature data on HCV-infected patients concerning the prevalence of glucose abnormalities [ diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR)] and associated risk [i.e., severe liver fibrosis, response to antivirals,
diabetes mellitus 2000 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased rates of glucose abnormalities, including diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. The presence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infected patients, including diabetes
diabetes mellitus 2116 mellitus and insulin resistance. The presence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infected patients, including diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, is associated with negative liver-related outcomes (i.e., severe liver fibrosis,
diabetes mellitus 3557 central nervous system and metabolic diseases[[3]]. Among the latter, some studies assessed the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) or insulin resistance (IR) while others evaluated the impact of DM/IR on the main liver-related
diabetes mellitus 4671 infection. The definition of DM was usually based on a fasting plasma glucose > 1.26 g/L, or a history of diabetes mellitus , or use of oral antidiabetic agents or insulin. The definition of IR was based on the Homeostasis Model
diabetes mellitus 6033 or RNAEndpointStatistical methodsAssociationStatisticsHCV infection markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Sangiorgio et al[[4]]2000ItalyRetrospectiveDM1514HV1300AbHCVUnivariateYesP < 0.0001Chen et al[[5]]2006TaiwanCross
diabetes mellitus 12617 risk of DM compared with controls (adjusted OR = 1.68) and with HBV patients (adjusted OR = 1.80).Are diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance associated with liver fibrosis severity in HCV infected patients?Thirty studies
diabetes mellitus 16683 IR: Insulin resistance; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FPG: Fasting plasma glucose; NS: Not significant.Do diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance have an impact on the virological response to HCV treatment?Twenty-six studies
diabetes mellitus 27829 fibrosis[[15],[16]].DISCUSSIONMany studies have evaluated the association between HCV chronic infection, insulin-resistance and diabetes mellitus . The abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism, including hyperinsulinemia and IR, known to be per se
diabetes mellitus 28216 with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and possibly progressing to type 2 diabetes. HCV-related type 2 diabetes mellitus may arise from a complex interaction between IR, steatosis and inflammatory processes. Epidemiologic
diabetes mellitus 28728 present analysis.HCV infection is associated with increased rates of glucose abnormalities, including diabetes mellitus and insulin resistanceIn the present analysis, most studies found a significant association between
diabetes mellitus 28928 association between HCV infection (whether active HCV RNA positive, or not i.e., HCV Ab positive) and diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance. This tight association was confirmed in both directions by the increased rates
diabetes mellitus 33395 lipid-related genes in G1 patients[[43]].Presence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infected patients, including diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, is associated with negative liver-related outcomesSevere liver fibrosis, the
diabetes mellitus 38740 liver outcomes. HCV infection is associated with increased rates of glucose abnormalities, including diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. The presence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infected patients, including diabetes
diabetes mellitus 38856 mellitus and insulin resistance. The presence of glucose abnormalities in HCV infected patients, including diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, is associated with negative liver-related outcomes (i.e., severe liver fibrosis,
glucose intolerance 9735 al[[58]]2008JapanCase-controlHCV130HBV230RNAIRMultivariateNoNSMavrogiannaki et al[[59]]2008Greeceprospective case controlHCV108HBV81RNA glucose intolerance Univariate adjustedNoNSPersico et al[[60]]2009ItalyRetrospectiveHCV726HBV126AbDMUnivariate adjustedNoNS1HCV
hyperinsulinemia 27904 infection, insulin-resistance and diabetes mellitus. The abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism, including hyperinsulinemia and IR, known to be per se related to chronic hepatic diseases, were the rationale for speculation on
metabolic syndrome 28132 relationship. Insulin-resistance is an often undetected condition, commonly coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome , and possibly progressing to type 2 diabetes. HCV-related type 2 diabetes mellitus may arise from a
metabolic syndrome 39386 HCV infected patients, antiviral treatment should also be considered in HCV-infected patients with metabolic syndrome .Peer-reviewThis review talks about the relationship between HCV infection and glucose abnormalities.
obesity 28120 on this relationship. Insulin-resistance is an often undetected condition, commonly coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and possibly progressing to type 2 diabetes. HCV-related type 2 diabetes mellitus
type 2 diabetes mellitus 6026 HCV Ab or RNAEndpointStatistical methodsAssociationStatisticsHCV infection markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Sangiorgio et al[[4]]2000ItalyRetrospectiveDM1514HV1300AbHCVUnivariateYesP < 0.0001Chen et al[[5]]2006TaiwanCross
type 2 diabetes mellitus 28209 coexisting with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and possibly progressing to type 2 diabetes. HCV-related type 2 diabetes mellitus may arise from a complex interaction between IR, steatosis and inflammatory processes. Epidemiologic

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